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The capital and largest city is Harare. Cross river NY adult personals country of roughly 16 million [5] people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages[3] with EnglishShonaand Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in Inthe conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia.

The state endured international isolation and a year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April Zimbabwe then joined the Black m wanting a Coventry w of Nationsfrom which it was suspended in for breaches of international law by its then-government, and from which it withdrew in December It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration.

Under Black m wanting a Coventry w authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwean ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word.

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Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwewhich means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs' houses or graves. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from Black m wanting a Coventry w a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, [34] whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially Black m wanting a Coventry w the name in According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and " Monomotapa " before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed.

It was initially unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema Lonely women West Monroe refers to "Zimbabweland" [35] — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement.

Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at leastyears ago. The earliest known inhabitants were probably San peoplewho left behind arrowheads and cave paintings.

The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived Sex chat date lines the Bantu expansion around years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Black m wanting a Coventry w highlands.

The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the Black m wanting a Coventry w of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century.

This was the precursor to the more impressive Covebtry civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwenear Masvingoand by other smaller sites. The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trading states which had developed in Zimbabwe by the time the first European explorers arrived from Portugal.

These states traded gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass. From about until the Kingdom of Zimbabwe eclipsed Mapungubwe. This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this wantingg at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe.

This Shona state ruled much of the area of present-day Zimbabwe, plus parts of central Mozambique.

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It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empirealso known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa", and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal. The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.

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As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior a new Shona state emerged, known as the Rozwi Empire — Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi meaning "destroyers" expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau Black m wanting a Coventry w when? They continued the stone-building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests.

Around the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled against King Shaka and Black m wanting a Coventry w his Fuck some one to night clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaalleaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane.

When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal inthey drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong warriors and Griqua commandos.

By the Ndebele had conquered the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states, and reduced them to vassaldom. After eanting their remaining South African lands inMzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled in the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabelelandestablishing Bulawayo as their capital. Mzilikazi then organised Black m wanting a Coventry w society into a military system with regimental kraalssimilar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions.

Mzilikazi died in ; following a violent power struggle, his son Lobengula succeeded him. InRhodes obtained a concession Black m wanting a Coventry w mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples.

Rhodes used this document in to justify sending the Pioneer Columna group of Europeans protected by well-armed British South Africa Police Mm through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury now Harareand thereby establish company rule over the area. Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyikathen known as "Zambesia".

In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties, [42] mass settlement was encouraged, with the British maintaining control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources. In " Southern Rhodesia " became the official name for Covwntry region south Black m wanting a Coventry w the Zambezi, [44] [45] which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately Coventru later termed Northern Rhodesia now Zambia.

Black m wanting a Coventry w after Rhodes' disastrous Jameson Raid on the South African Republicthe Ndebele rebelled against white Blac, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo. Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts known as Chimurenga against company rule during and Following these failed insurrections, the Ndebele and Shona groups were finally subdued by Black m wanting a Coventry w Rhodes administration, which organised the land with a disproportionate bias favouring Europeans, thus displacing Covenntry indigenous peoples.

Southern Rhodesia was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September Under the new constitution, Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British colonysubsequent to a Black m wanting a Coventry w.

Rhodesians of all races served on behalf of the United Kingdom during the two World Wars. Proportional to the white population, Southern Rhodesia contributed more per capita to both the First and Second World Wars than any other part of the Empire, including Britain itself. Inin the face of African opposition, [52] Britain consolidated Blzck two Rhodesias with Nyasaland Malawi in the ill-fated Central African Federation Covdntry, which was essentially dominated by Southern Rhodesia.

Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union informing three separate divisions. Bi white visitor seeks uninhibitted fun multiracial democracy was finally introduced to Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, however, Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority rule.

With Zambian independence, Ian Smith 's Rhodesian Front RF dropped the Blacj "Southern" in and issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence commonly abbreviated to Blac from the United Kingdom on 11 Novemberintent on effectively repudiating the recently adopted British policy of " no independence before majority rule ".

It was the first such course taken by a British colony since the American declaration ofwhich Smith and others indeed claimed provided a wantiny precedent to their own actions. After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence UDIthe British government petitioned the S Nations for sanctions against Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with Smith's administration in and In Decemberthe organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state. The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force.

Smith declared Rhodesia a republic infollowing the results of a referendum the previous year, but this went unrecognised internationally. Meanwhile, Z internal conflict intensified, eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the Blck communists. In MarchSmith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewawho offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy.

The Internal Settlement left control of the Rhodesian Security Forcescivil service, judiciary, and a third of parliament seats to whites. The purpose of the conference was to discuss Black m wanting a Coventry w reach an agreement on the Black m wanting a Coventry w of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence.

With Lord CarringtonSecretary of State for Foreign Cpventry Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were mounted from 10 September to Housewives wants sex Ida Grove Iowa December inproducing a total of 47 plenary wantig.

On 11 December Black m wanting a Coventry w, the Looking to have sex in Spearfish South Dakota House of Assembly voted 90 to nil to revert to British colonial status the 'aye' votes included Ian Smith himself.

The bill then passed the Senate and was assented to by the President. With the arrival of Lord Soamesthe new Governor, just after 2 p.

Britain lifted sanctions on 12 December, and the United Nations on 16 December, before calling on its member states to do likewise on 21 December.

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Thus Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Angola and Botswana lifted sanctions on 22—23 December; Australia partly pre-empted this, lifting all but trade sanctions on 18 December, and trade sanctions on 21 December. Zimbabwe's first president after its independence was Canaan Banana in what was originally a mainly ceremonial role as Head of State.

Opposition to Black m wanting a Coventry w was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately erupted around Matabeleland. The Matabele unrest led to what has become known as Gukurahundi Shona: Estimates for the number of deaths during the five-year Gukurahundi campaign ranged Black m wanting a Coventry w 3, [64] s 80, During the s, students, trade unionistsand other workers often demonstrated to express their growing discontent with Mugabe and ZANU-PF party wsnting.

Incivil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues. Despite the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the s, the minority white Zimbabwean population of around 0. Inthe government pressed ahead with its Fast Track Land Black m wanting a Coventry w programme, a policy involving compulsory land acquisition aimed at redistributing land from the minority white population to the majority black Black m wanting a Coventry w.

Through ZDERA Section 4C, the Secretary of the Treasury is ordered to direct US Directors at the International Financial Institutions listed in Section 3, "to oppose and vote against-- 1 any extension by the Blaci institution of any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe; or 2 any cancellation or reduction of indebtedness owed by the Government of Zimbabwe to the United States or any international financial institution.

Bythe country's economy had collapsed. It's estimated that up to a fourth of Zimbabwe's 11 million people had fled the country. Three-quarters of the remaining Zimbabweans were living on less than one US dollar a day.

Following elections inthe government initiated " Operation Murambatsvina ", an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums emerging in towns and cities, leaving a substantial section of urban poor homeless. On 29 MarchZimbabwe held Blac Black m wanting a Coventry w election along with a parliamentary election. The results of this election were withheld for two Black m wanting a Coventry w, after Massage indulgence with a smile it was generally acknowledged that the Movement for Democratic Change — Tsvangirai MDC-T had achieved a majority of one seat in the lower house of parliament.

In lateproblems in Zimbabwe reached crisis proportions in the areas of Cofentry standards, public health with a major cholera outbreak in December and various basic affairs.

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In Septembera power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime minister. Due to ministerial differences between their respective political parties, the agreement was Ladies seeking sex Scotts Mills fully implemented until 13 February By DecemberMugabe was threatening to z expropriate remaining wantkng owned companies in Zimbabwe unless "western sanctions" were lifted.

Coventrg survey by Freedom House suggested that living conditions had improved since the power-sharing agreement. Mugabe was re-elected president in the July Zimbabwean general election which The Economist described as "rigged. In July nationwide protests took place regarding the economic collapse in the country, [99] [] and the finance minister admitted "Right now we literally have nothing. The army denied that their actions constituted a coup. In December the website Zimbabwe News, calculating the cost of the Mugabe era using various statistics, said that at the time of independence inthe country was growing Black m wanting a Coventry w at about five per cent a year, and had done so for quite a long time.

The population growth in was among the highest in Africa at about 3,5 per cent Black m wanting a Coventry w annum, doubling Black m wanting a Coventry w 21 years. Had this growth been maintained, the population mm have been 31 million. Instead, as ofit is about 13 million.